﻿ Formula Functions | Documents for Excel .NET Edition | GCDocuments
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Formula Functions
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GcExcel.NET provides support for the following built-in functions, listed alphabetically.

 Function Name Function Category Function Description ABS Math and Trigonometry Returns the absolute value of a number. ACCRINT Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. ACCRINTM Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. ACOS Math and Trigonometry Returns the arccosine of a number. ACOSH Math and Trigonometry Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. ACOT Math and Trigonometry Returns the arccotangent of a number. ACOTH Math and Trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number. ADDRESS Lookup and Reference Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet. AMORDEGRC Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient. AMORLINC Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. AND Logical Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE. ARABIC Math and Trigonometry Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number. AREAS Lookup and Reference Returns the number of areas in a reference. ASIN Math and Trigonometry Returns the arcsine of a number. ASINH Math and Trigonometry Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. ATAN Math and Trigonometry Returns the arctangent of a number. ATAN2 Math and Trigonometry Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates. ATANH Math and Trigonometry Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. AVEDEV Statistical Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. AVERAGE Statistical Returns the average of its arguments. AVERAGEA Statistical Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. AVERAGEIF Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria. AVERAGEIFS Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. BAHTTEXT Text Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format. BASE Math and Trigonometry Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base). BESSELI Engineering Returns the modified Bessel function In(x). BESSELJ Engineering Returns the Bessel function Jn(x). BESSELK Engineering Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x). BESSELY Engineering Returns the Bessel function Yn(x). BETA.DIST Statistical Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. BETA.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. BETADIST Compatibility Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. BETAINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. BIN2DEC Engineering Converts a binary number to decimal. BIN2HEX Engineering Converts a binary number to hexadecimal. BIN2OCT Engineering Converts a binary number to octal. BINOM.DIST Statistical Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. BINOM.DIST.RANGE Statistical Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution. BINOM.INV Statistical Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. BINOMDIST Compatibility Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. BITAND Engineering Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers. BITLSHIFT Engineering Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits. BITOR Engineering Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers. BITRSHIFT Engineering Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits. BITXOR Engineering Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers. CEILING Math and Trigonometry Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. CEILING.MATH Math and Trigonometry Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. CELL Information Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell. CHAR Text Returns the character specified by the code number. CHIDIST Compatibility Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHIINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.DIST Statistical Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. CHISQ.DIST.RT Statistical Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.INV Statistical Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. CHISQ.INV.RT Statistical Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.TEST Statistical Returns the test for independence. CHITEST Compatibility Returns the test for independence. CHOOSE Lookup and reference Chooses a value from a list of values. CLEAN Text Removes all nonprintable characters from text. CODE Text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. COLUMN Lookup and reference Returns the column number of a reference. COLUMNS Lookup and reference Returns the number of columns in a reference. COMBIN Math and trigonometry Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects. COMBINA Math and trigonometry Returns the number of combinations for a specified number of items including the repetitions. COMPLEX Engineering Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. CONCAT Text Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. CONCATENATE Text Joins several text items into one text item. CONFIDENCE Compatibility Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. CONFIDENCE.NORM Statistical Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. CONFIDENCE.T Statistical Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution. CONVERT Engineering Converts a number from one measurement system to another. CORREL Statistical Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets. COS Math and trigonometry Returns the cosine of a number. COSH Math and trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. COT Math and trigonometry Returns the cotangent of an angle. COTH Math and trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle. COUNT Statistical Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments. COUNTA Statistical Counts how many values are in the list of arguments. COUNTBLANK Statistical Counts the number of blank cells within a range. COUNTIF Statistical Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria. COUNTIFS Statistical Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria. COUPDAYBS Financial Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. COUPDAYS Financial Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. COUPDAYSNC Financial Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. COUPNCD Financial Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. COUPNUM Financial Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date. COUPPCD Financial Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date. COVAR Compatibility Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. COVARIANCE.P Statistical Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. COVARIANCE.S Statistical Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets. CRITBINOM Compatibility Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. CSC Math and trigonometry Returns the cosecant of an angle. CSCH Math and trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. CUMIPMT Financial Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods. CUMPRINC Financial Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods. DATE Date and time Returns the serial number of a particular date. DATEDIF Date and time Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. DATEVALUE Date and time Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number. DAVERAGE Database Returns the average of selected database entries. DAY Date and time Converts a serial number to a day of the month. DAYS Date and time Returns the number of days between two dates. DAYS360 Date and time Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year. DB Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method. DCOUNT Database Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters. DCOUNTA Database Counts nonblank cells in a database. DDB Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify. DEC2BIN Engineering Converts a decimal number to binary. DEC2HEX Engineering Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal. DEC2OCT Engineering Converts a decimal number to octal. DECIMAL Math and trigonometry Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number. DEGREES Math and trigonometry Converts radians to degrees. DELTA Engineering Tests whether two values are equal. DEVSQ Statistical Returns the sum of squares of deviations. DGET Database Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria. DISC Financial Returns the discount rate for a security. DMAX Database Returns the maximum value from selected database entries. DMIN Database Returns the minimum value from selected database entries. DOLLAR Text Converts a number to text, using the \$ (dollar) currency format. DOLLARDE Financial Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number. DOLLARFR Financial Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction. DPRODUCT Database Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database. DSTDEV Database Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries. DSTDEVP Database Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries. DSUM Database Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria. DURATION Financial Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments. DVAR Database Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries. DVARP Database Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries. EDATE Date and time Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date. EFFECT Financial Returns the effective annual interest rate. ENCODEURL Web Returns a URL-encoded string. EOMONTH Date and time Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months. ERF Engineering Returns the error function. ERF.PRECISE Engineering Returns the error function. ERFC Engineering Returns the complementary error function. ERFC.PRECISE Engineering Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity. ERROR.TYPE Information Returns a number corresponding to an error type. EUROCONVERT Add-in and Automation Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). EVEN Math and Trigonometry Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. EXACT Text Checks to see if two text values are identical. EXP Math and Trigonometry Returns e raised to the power of a given number. EXPON.DIST Statistical Returns the exponential distribution. EXPONDIST Compatibility Returns the exponential distribution. F.DIST Statistical Returns the F probability distribution F.DIST.RT Statistical Returns the F probability distribution F.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. F.INV.RT Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. F.TEST Statistical Returns the result of an F-test. FACT Math and trigonometry Returns the factorial of a number. FACTDOUBLE Math and trigonometry Returns the double factorial of a number. FALSE Logical Returns the logical value FALSE. FDIST Compatibility Returns the F probability distribution. FIND Text Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive). FINDBs Text Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive). FINV Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. FISHER Statistical Returns the Fisher transformation. FISHERINV Statistical Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. FIXED Text Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals. FLOOR Compatibility Rounds a number down, toward zero. FLOOR.MATH Math and trigonometry Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. FLOOR.PRECISE Math and trigonometry Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. FORECAST Statistical Returns a value along a linear trend. FORMULATEXT Lookup and reference Returns the formula at the given reference as text. FREQUENCY Statistical Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array. FTEST Compatibility Returns the result of an F-test. FV Financial Returns the future value of an investment. FVSCHEDULE Financial Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. GAMMA Statistical Returns the Gamma function value. GAMMA.DIST Statistical Returns the Gamma distribution. GAMMA.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. GAMMADIST Compatibility Returns the gamma distribution. GAMMAINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. GAMMALN Statistical Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x). GAMMALN.PRECISE Statistical Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x). GAUSS Statistical Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution. GCD Math and trigonometry Returns the greatest common divisor. GEOMEAN Statistical Returns the geometric mean. GESTEP Engineering Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value. GROWTH Statistical Returns values along an exponential trend. HARMEAN Statistical Returns the harmonic mean. HEX2BIN Engineering Converts a hexadecimal number to binary. HEX2DEC Engineering Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal. HEX2OCT Engineering Converts a hexadecimal number to octal. HLOOKUP Lookup and reference Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell. HOUR Date and time Converts a serial number to an hour. HYPERLINK Lookup and reference Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet. HYPGEOM.DIST Statistical Returns the hypergeometric distribution. HYPGEOMDIST Compatibility Returns the hypergeometric distribution. IF Logical Specifies a logical test to perform IFERROR Logical Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula. IFNA Logical Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression. IFS Logical Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.. IMABS Engineering Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number. IMAGINARY Engineering Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. IMARGUMENT Engineering Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians. IMCONJUGATE Engineering Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number. IMCOS Engineering Returns the cosine of a complex number. IMCOSH Engineering Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number. IMCOT Engineering Returns the cotangent of a complex number. IMCSC Engineering Returns the cosecant of a complex number. IMCSCH Engineering Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number. IMDIV Engineering Returns the quotient of two complex numbers. IMEXP Engineering Returns the exponential of a complex number. IMLN Engineering Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number. IMLOG10 Engineering Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number. IMLOG2 Engineering Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number. IMPOWER Engineering Returns a complex number raised to an integer power. IMPRODUCT Engineering Returns the product of complex numbers. IMREAL Engineering Returns the real coefficient of a complex number. IMSEC Engineering Returns the secant of a complex number. IMSECH Engineering Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number. IMSIN Engineering Returns the sine of a complex number. IMSINH Engineering Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number. IMSQRT Engineering Returns the square root of a complex number. IMSUB Engineering Returns the difference between two complex numbers. IMSUM Engineering Returns the sum of complex numbers. IMTAN Engineering Returns the tangent of a complex number. INDEX Lookup and reference Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. INDIRECT Lookup and reference Returns a reference indicated by a text value. INT Math and trigonometry Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. INTERCEPT Statistical Returns the intercept of the linear regression line. INTRATE Financial Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. IPMT Financial Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period. IRR Financial Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flowsReturns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. ISBLANK Information Returns TRUE if the value is blank. ISERR Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A. ISERROR Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value. ISEVEN Information Returns TRUE if the number is even. ISFORMULA Information Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula. ISLOGICAL Information Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value. ISNA Information Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value. ISNONTEXT Information Returns TRUE if the value is not text. ISNUMBER Information Returns TRUE if the value is a number. ISO.CEILING Math and trigonometry Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. ISODD Information Returns TRUE if the number is odd. ISOWEEKNUM Date and time Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date. ISPMT Financial Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. ISREF Information Returns TRUE if the value is a reference. ISTEXT Information Returns TRUE if the value is text. KURT Statistical Returns TRUE if the value is text. LARGE Statistical Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. LCM Math and trigonometry Returns the least common multiple. LEFT Text Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. LEFTBs Text Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. LEN Text Returns the number of characters in a text string. LENBs Text Returns the number of characters in a text string. LINEST Statistical Returns the parameters of a linear trend. LN Math and trigonometry Returns the natural logarithm of a number. LOG Math and trigonometry Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. LOG10 Math and trigonometry Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number. LOGEST Statistical Returns the parameters of an exponential trend. LOGINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. LOGNORM.DIST Statistical Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. LOGNORM.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. LOGNORMDIST Compatibility Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. LOOKUP Lookup and reference Looks up values in a vector or array. LOWER Text Converts text to lowercase. MATCH Lookup and reference Looks up values in a reference or array. MAX Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments. MAXA Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. MAXIFS Statistical Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. MDETERM Math and trigonometry Returns the matrix determinant of an array. MDURATION Financial Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100. MEDIAN Statistical Returns the median of the given numbers. MID Text Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. MIDBs Text Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. MIN Statistical Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments. MINA Statistical Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. MINIFS Statistical Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. MINUTE Date and time Converts a serial number to a minute. MINVERSE Math and trigonometry Returns the matrix inverse of an array. MIRR Financial Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates. MMULT Math and trigonometry Returns the matrix product of two arrays. MOD Math and trigonometry Returns the remainder from division. MODE Compatibility Returns the most common value in a data set. MODE.MULT Statistical Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data. MODE.SNGL Statistical Returns the most common value in a data set. MONTH Date and time Converts a serial number to a month. MROUND Math and trigonometry Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. MULTINOMIAL Math and trigonometry Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers. MUNIT Math and trigonometry Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension. N Information Returns a value converted to a number. NA Information Returns the error value #N/A. NEGBINOM.DIST Statistical Returns the negative binomial distribution. NEGBINOMDIST Compatibility Returns the negative binomial distribution. NETWORKDAYS Date and time Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates. NETWORKDAYS.INTL Date and time Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. NOMINAL Financial Returns the annual nominal interest rate. NORM.DIST Statistical Returns the normal cumulative distribution. NORM.INV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. NORM.S.DIST Statistical Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. NORM.S.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. NORMDIST Compatibility Returns the normal cumulative distribution. NORMINV Statistical Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. NORMSDIST Compatibility Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. NORMSINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. NOT Logical Reverses the logic of its argument. NOW Date and time Returns the serial number of the current date and time. NPER Financial Returns the number of periods for an investment. NPV Financial Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. NUMBERVALUE Text Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner. OCT2BIN Engineering Converts an octal number to binary. OCT2DEC Engineering Converts an octal number to decimal. OCT2HEX Engineering Converts an octal number to hexadecimal. ODD Math and trigonometry Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer. ODDFPRICE Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period. ODDFYIELD Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period. ODDLPRICE Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period. ODDLYIELD Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period. OFFSET Lookup and reference Returns a reference offset from a given reference. OR Logical Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE. PDURATION Financial Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value. PEARSON Statistical Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. PERCENTILE Compatibility Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. PERCENTILE.EXC Statistical Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive. PERCENTILE.INC Statistical Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. PERCENTRANK Compatibility Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. PERCENTRANK.EXC Statistical Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set. PERCENTRANK.INC Statistical Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. PERMUT Statistical Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects. PERMUTATIONA Statistical Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects. PHI Statistical Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution. PI Math and trigonometry Returns the value of pi. PMT Financial Returns the periodic payment for an annuity. POISSON Compatibility Returns the Poisson distribution. POISSON.DIST Statistical Returns the Poisson distribution. POWER Math and trigonometry Returns the result of a number raised to a power. PPMT Financial Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period. PRICE Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. PRICEDISC Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security. PRICEMAT Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. PROB Statistical Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. PRODUCT Math and trigonometry Multiplies its arguments. PROPER Text Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value. PV Financial Returns the present value of an investment. QUARTILE Compatibility Returns the quartile of a data set. QUARTILE.EXC Statistical Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive. QUARTILE.INC Statistical Returns the quartile of a data set. QUOTIENT Math and trigonometry Returns the integer portion of a division. RADIANS Math and trigonometry Converts degrees to radians. RAND Math and trigonometry Returns a random number between 0 and 1. RANDBETWEEN Math and trigonometry Returns a random number between the numbers you specify. RANK Compatibility Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. RANK.AVG Statistical Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. RANK.EQ Statistical Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. RATE Financial Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. RECEIVED Financial Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security. REPLACE Text Replaces characters within text. REPLACEBs Text Replaces characters within text REPT Text Repeats text a given number of times. RIGHT Text Returns the rightmost characters from a text value. RIGHTBs Text Returns the rightmost characters from a text value. ROMAN Math and trigonometry Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text. ROUND Math and trigonometry Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. ROUNDDOWN Math and trigonometry Rounds a number down, toward zero. ROUNDUP Math and trigonometry Rounds a number up, away from zero. ROW Lookup and reference Returns the row number of a reference. ROWS Lookup and reference Returns the number of rows in a reference. RRI Financial Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment. RSQ Statistical Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. SEARCH Text Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive). SEARCHBs Text Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive). SEC Math and trigonometry Returns the secant of an angle. SECH Math and trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle. SECOND Date and Time Converts a serial number to a second. SERIESSUM Math and trigonometry Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula. SHEET Information Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet. SHEETS Information Returns the number of sheets in a reference. SIGN Math and trigonometry Returns the sign of a number. SIN Math and trigonometry Returns the sine of the given angle. SINH Math and trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. SKEW Statistical Returns the skewness of a distribution. SKEW.P Statistical Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. SLN Financial Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period. SLOPE Statistical Returns the slope of the linear regression line. SMALL Statistical Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set. SQRT Math and trigonometry Returns a positive square root. SQRTPI Math and trigonometry Returns the square root of (number * pi). STANDARDIZE Statistical Returns a normalized value. STDEV Compatibility Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. STDEV.P Statistical Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. STDEV.S Statistical Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. STDEVA Statistical Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values. STDEVP Compatibility Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. STDEVPA Statistical Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. STEYX Statistical Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression. SUBSTITUTE Text Substitutes new text for old text in a text string. SUBTOTAL Math and trigonometry Returns a subtotal in a list or database. SUM Math and trigonometry Adds its arguments. SUMIF Math and trigonometry Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. SUMIFS Math and trigonometry Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. SUMPRODUCT Math and trigonometry Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components. SUMSQ Math and trigonometry Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments. SUMX2MY2 Math and trigonometry Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. SUMX2PY2 Math and trigonometry Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. SUMXMY2 Math and trigonometry Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. SWITCH Logical Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. SYD Financial Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. T Text Converts its arguments to text. T.DIST Statistical Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution. T.DIST.2T Statistical Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution. T.DIST.RT Statistical Returns the Student's t-distribution. T.INV Statistical Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. T.INV.2T Statistical Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution. T.TEST Statistical Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test. TAN Math and trigonometry Returns the tangent of a number. TANH Math and trigonometry Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. TBILLEQ Financial Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill. TBILLPRICE Financial Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill. TBILLYIELD Financial Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. TDIST Compatibility Returns the Student's t-distribution. TEXT Text Formats a number and converts it to text. TEXTJOIN Text Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. TIME Date and time Returns the serial number of a particular time. TIMEVALUE Date and time Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number. TINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution. TODAY Date and time Returns the serial number of today's date. TRANSPOSE Lookup and reference Returns the transpose of an array. TREND Statistical Returns values along a linear trend. TRIM Text Removes spaces from text. TRIMMEAN Statistical Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. TRUE Logical Returns the logical value TRUE. TRUNC Math and trigonometry Truncates a number to an integer. TTEST Compatibility Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test. TYPE Information Returns a number indicating the data type of a value. UNICHAR Text Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value. UNICODE Text Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text. UPPER Text Converts text to uppercase. VALUE Text Converts a text argument to a number. VAR Compatibility Estimates variance based on a sample. VAR.P Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire population. VAR.S Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample. VARA Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values. VARP Compatibility Calculates variance based on the entire population. VARPA Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. VDB Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method. VLOOKUP Lookup and reference Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell. WEEKDAY Date and time Converts a serial number to a day of the week. WEEKNUM Date and time Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year. WEIBULL Compatibility Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. WEIBULL.DIST Statistical Returns the Weibull distribution. WORKDAY Date and time Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays. WORKDAY.INTL Date and time Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. XIRR Financial Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. XNPV Financial Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. XOR Logical Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments. YEAR Date and time Converts a serial number to a year. YEARFRAC Date and time Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date. YIELD Financial Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest. YIELDDISC Financial Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill. YIELDMAT Financial Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity. Z.TEST Statistical Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. ZTEST Compatibility Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.