In This Topic

Formula Functions

In This Topic

GcExcel.NET provides support for the following built-in functions, listed alphabetically.

Function Name |
Function Category |
Function Description |

ABS | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the absolute value of a number. |

ACCRINT | Financial | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. |

ACCRINTM | Financial | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. |

ACOS | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the arccosine of a number. |

ACOSH | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. |

ACOT | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the arccotangent of a number. |

ACOTH | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number. |

ADDRESS | Lookup and Reference | Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet. |

AMORDEGRC | Financial | Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient. |

AMORLINC | Financial | Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. |

AND | Logical | Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE. |

ARABIC | Math and Trigonometry | Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number. |

AREAS | Lookup and Reference | Returns the number of areas in a reference. |

ASIN | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the arcsine of a number. |

ASINH | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. |

ATAN | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the arctangent of a number. |

ATAN2 | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates. |

ATANH | Math and Trigonometry | Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. |

AVEDEV | Statistical | Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. |

AVERAGE | Statistical | Returns the average of its arguments. |

AVERAGEA | Statistical | Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

AVERAGEIF | Statistical | Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria. |

AVERAGEIFS | Statistical | Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. |

BAHTTEXT | Text | Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format. |

BASE | Math and Trigonometry | Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base). |

BESSELI | Engineering | Returns the modified Bessel function In(x). |

BESSELJ | Engineering | Returns the Bessel function Jn(x). |

BESSELK | Engineering | Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x). |

BESSELY | Engineering | Returns the Bessel function Yn(x). |

BETA.DIST | Statistical | Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. |

BETA.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. |

BETADIST | Compatibility | Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. |

BETAINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. |

BIN2DEC | Engineering | Converts a binary number to decimal. |

BIN2HEX | Engineering | Converts a binary number to hexadecimal. |

BIN2OCT | Engineering | Converts a binary number to octal. |

BINOM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. |

BINOM.DIST.RANGE | Statistical | Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution. |

BINOM.INV | Statistical | Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. |

BINOMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. |

BITAND | Engineering | Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers. |

BITLSHIFT | Engineering | Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits. |

BITOR | Engineering | Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers. |

BITRSHIFT | Engineering | Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits. |

BITXOR | Engineering | Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers. |

CEILING | Math and Trigonometry | Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. |

CEILING.MATH | Math and Trigonometry | Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. |

CELL | Information | Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell. |

CHAR | Text | Returns the character specified by the code number. |

CHIDIST | Compatibility | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. |

CHIINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. |

CHISQ.DIST | Statistical | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. |

CHISQ.DIST.RT | Statistical | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. |

CHISQ.INV | Statistical | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. |

CHISQ.INV.RT | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. |

CHISQ.TEST | Statistical | Returns the test for independence. |

CHITEST | Compatibility | Returns the test for independence. |

CHOOSE | Lookup and reference | Chooses a value from a list of values. |

CLEAN | Text | Removes all nonprintable characters from text. |

CODE | Text | Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. |

COLUMN | Lookup and reference | Returns the column number of a reference. |

COLUMNS | Lookup and reference | Returns the number of columns in a reference. |

COMBIN | Math and trigonometry | Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects. |

COMBINA | Math and trigonometry | Returns the number of combinations for a specified number of items including the repetitions. |

COMPLEX | Engineering | Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. |

CONCAT | Text | Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. |

CONCATENATE | Text | Joins several text items into one text item. |

CONFIDENCE | Compatibility | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. |

CONFIDENCE.NORM | Statistical | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. |

CONFIDENCE.T | Statistical | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution. |

CONVERT | Engineering | Converts a number from one measurement system to another. |

CORREL | Statistical | Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets. |

COS | Math and trigonometry | Returns the cosine of a number. |

COSH | Math and trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. |

COT | Math and trigonometry | Returns the cotangent of an angle. |

COTH | Math and trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle. |

COUNT | Statistical | Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments. |

COUNTA | Statistical | Counts how many values are in the list of arguments. |

COUNTBLANK | Statistical | Counts the number of blank cells within a range. |

COUNTIF | Statistical | Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria. |

COUNTIFS | Statistical | Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria. |

COUPDAYBS | Financial | Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. |

COUPDAYS | Financial | Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. |

COUPDAYSNC | Financial | Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. |

COUPNCD | Financial | Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. |

COUPNUM | Financial | Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date. |

COUPPCD | Financial | Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date. |

COVAR | Compatibility | Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. |

COVARIANCE.P | Statistical | Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. |

COVARIANCE.S | Statistical | Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets. |

CRITBINOM | Compatibility | Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. |

CSC | Math and trigonometry | Returns the cosecant of an angle. |

CSCH | Math and trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. |

CUMIPMT | Financial | Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods. |

CUMPRINC | Financial | Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods. |

DATE | Date and time | Returns the serial number of a particular date. |

DATEDIF | Date and time | Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. |

DATEVALUE | Date and time | Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number. |

DAVERAGE | Database | Returns the average of selected database entries. |

DAY | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a day of the month. |

DAYS | Date and time | Returns the number of days between two dates. |

DAYS360 | Date and time | Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year. |

DB | Financial | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method. |

DCOUNT | Database | Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters. |

DCOUNTA | Database | Counts nonblank cells in a database. |

DDB | Financial | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify. |

DEC2BIN | Engineering | Converts a decimal number to binary. |

DEC2HEX | Engineering | Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal. |

DEC2OCT | Engineering | Converts a decimal number to octal. |

DECIMAL | Math and trigonometry | Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number. |

DEGREES | Math and trigonometry | Converts radians to degrees. |

DELTA | Engineering | Tests whether two values are equal. |

DEVSQ | Statistical | Returns the sum of squares of deviations. |

DGET | Database | Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria. |

DISC | Financial | Returns the discount rate for a security. |

DMAX | Database | Returns the maximum value from selected database entries. |

DMIN | Database | Returns the minimum value from selected database entries. |

DOLLAR | Text | Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format. |

DOLLARDE | Financial | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number. |

DOLLARFR | Financial | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction. |

DPRODUCT | Database | Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database. |

DSTDEV | Database | Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries. |

DSTDEVP | Database | Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries. |

DSUM | Database | Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria. |

DURATION | Financial | Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments. |

DVAR | Database | Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries. |

DVARP | Database | Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries. |

EDATE | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date. |

EFFECT | Financial | Returns the effective annual interest rate. |

ENCODEURL | Web | Returns a URL-encoded string. |

EOMONTH | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months. |

ERF | Engineering | Returns the error function. |

ERF.PRECISE | Engineering | Returns the error function. |

ERFC | Engineering | Returns the complementary error function. |

ERFC.PRECISE | Engineering | Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity. |

ERROR.TYPE | Information | Returns a number corresponding to an error type. |

EUROCONVERT | Add-in and Automation | Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). |

EVEN | Math and Trigonometry | Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. |

EXACT | Text | Checks to see if two text values are identical. |

EXP | Math and Trigonometry | Returns e raised to the power of a given number. |

EXPON.DIST | Statistical | Returns the exponential distribution. |

EXPONDIST | Compatibility | Returns the exponential distribution. |

F.DIST | Statistical | Returns the F probability distribution |

F.DIST.RT | Statistical | Returns the F probability distribution |

F.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. |

F.INV.RT | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. |

F.TEST | Statistical | Returns the result of an F-test. |

FACT | Math and trigonometry | Returns the factorial of a number. |

FACTDOUBLE | Math and trigonometry | Returns the double factorial of a number. |

FALSE | Logical | Returns the logical value FALSE. |

FDIST | Compatibility | Returns the F probability distribution. |

FIND | Text | Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive). |

FINDBs | Text | Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive). |

FINV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. |

FISHER | Statistical | Returns the Fisher transformation. |

FISHERINV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. |

FIXED | Text | Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals. |

FLOOR | Compatibility | Rounds a number down, toward zero. |

FLOOR.MATH | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. |

FLOOR.PRECISE | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. |

FORECAST | Statistical | Returns a value along a linear trend. |

FORMULATEXT | Lookup and reference | Returns the formula at the given reference as text. |

FREQUENCY | Statistical | Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array. |

FTEST | Compatibility | Returns the result of an F-test. |

FV | Financial | Returns the future value of an investment. |

FVSCHEDULE | Financial | Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. |

GAMMA | Statistical | Returns the Gamma function value. |

GAMMA.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Gamma distribution. |

GAMMA.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. |

GAMMADIST | Compatibility | Returns the gamma distribution. |

GAMMAINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. |

GAMMALN | Statistical | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x). |

GAMMALN.PRECISE | Statistical | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x). |

GAUSS | Statistical | Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution. |

GCD | Math and trigonometry | Returns the greatest common divisor. |

GEOMEAN | Statistical | Returns the geometric mean. |

GESTEP | Engineering | Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value. |

GROWTH | Statistical | Returns values along an exponential trend. |

HARMEAN | Statistical | Returns the harmonic mean. |

HEX2BIN | Engineering | Converts a hexadecimal number to binary. |

HEX2DEC | Engineering | Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal. |

HEX2OCT | Engineering | Converts a hexadecimal number to octal. |

HLOOKUP | Lookup and reference | Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell. |

HOUR | Date and time | Converts a serial number to an hour. |

HYPERLINK | Lookup and reference | Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet. |

HYPGEOM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the hypergeometric distribution. |

HYPGEOMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the hypergeometric distribution. |

IF | Logical | Specifies a logical test to perform |

IFERROR | Logical | Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula. |

IFNA | Logical | Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression. |

IFS | Logical | Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.. |

IMABS | Engineering | Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number. |

IMAGINARY | Engineering | Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. |

IMARGUMENT | Engineering | Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians. |

IMCONJUGATE | Engineering | Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number. |

IMCOS | Engineering | Returns the cosine of a complex number. |

IMCOSH | Engineering | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number. |

IMCOT | Engineering | Returns the cotangent of a complex number. |

IMCSC | Engineering | Returns the cosecant of a complex number. |

IMCSCH | Engineering | Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number. |

IMDIV | Engineering | Returns the quotient of two complex numbers. |

IMEXP | Engineering | Returns the exponential of a complex number. |

IMLN | Engineering | Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number. |

IMLOG10 | Engineering | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number. |

IMLOG2 | Engineering | Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number. |

IMPOWER | Engineering | Returns a complex number raised to an integer power. |

IMPRODUCT | Engineering | Returns the product of complex numbers. |

IMREAL | Engineering | Returns the real coefficient of a complex number. |

IMSEC | Engineering | Returns the secant of a complex number. |

IMSECH | Engineering | Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number. |

IMSIN | Engineering | Returns the sine of a complex number. |

IMSINH | Engineering | Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number. |

IMSQRT | Engineering | Returns the square root of a complex number. |

IMSUB | Engineering | Returns the difference between two complex numbers. |

IMSUM | Engineering | Returns the sum of complex numbers. |

IMTAN | Engineering | Returns the tangent of a complex number. |

INDEX | Lookup and reference | Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. |

INDIRECT | Lookup and reference | Returns a reference indicated by a text value. |

INT | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. |

INTERCEPT | Statistical | Returns the intercept of the linear regression line. |

INTRATE | Financial | Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. |

IPMT | Financial | Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period. |

IRR | Financial | Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flowsReturns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. |

ISBLANK | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is blank. |

ISERR | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A. |

ISERROR | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value. |

ISEVEN | Information | Returns TRUE if the number is even. |

ISFORMULA | Information | Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula. |

ISLOGICAL | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value. |

ISNA | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value. |

ISNONTEXT | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is not text. |

ISNUMBER | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is a number. |

ISO.CEILING | Math and trigonometry | Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. |

ISODD | Information | Returns TRUE if the number is odd. |

ISOWEEKNUM | Date and time | Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date. |

ISPMT | Financial | Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment. |

ISREF | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is a reference. |

ISTEXT | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is text. |

KURT | Statistical | Returns TRUE if the value is text. |

LARGE | Statistical | Returns the k-th largest value in a data set. |

LCM | Math and trigonometry | Returns the least common multiple. |

LEFT | Text | Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. |

LEFTBs | Text | Returns the leftmost characters from a text value. |

LEN | Text | Returns the number of characters in a text string. |

LENBs | Text | Returns the number of characters in a text string. |

LINEST | Statistical | Returns the parameters of a linear trend. |

LN | Math and trigonometry | Returns the natural logarithm of a number. |

LOG | Math and trigonometry | Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. |

LOG10 | Math and trigonometry | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number. |

LOGEST | Statistical | Returns the parameters of an exponential trend. |

LOGINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. |

LOGNORM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. |

LOGNORM.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. |

LOGNORMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. |

LOOKUP | Lookup and reference | Looks up values in a vector or array. |

LOWER | Text | Converts text to lowercase. |

MATCH | Lookup and reference | Looks up values in a reference or array. |

MAX | Statistical | Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments. |

MAXA | Statistical | Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

MAXIFS | Statistical | Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. |

MDETERM | Math and trigonometry | Returns the matrix determinant of an array. |

MDURATION | Financial | Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100. |

MEDIAN | Statistical | Returns the median of the given numbers. |

MID | Text | Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. |

MIDBs | Text | Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify. |

MIN | Statistical | Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments. |

MINA | Statistical | Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

MINIFS | Statistical | Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. |

MINUTE | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a minute. |

MINVERSE | Math and trigonometry | Returns the matrix inverse of an array. |

MIRR | Financial | Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates. |

MMULT | Math and trigonometry | Returns the matrix product of two arrays. |

MOD | Math and trigonometry | Returns the remainder from division. |

MODE | Compatibility | Returns the most common value in a data set. |

MODE.MULT | Statistical | Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data. |

MODE.SNGL | Statistical | Returns the most common value in a data set. |

MONTH | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a month. |

MROUND | Math and trigonometry | Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. |

MULTINOMIAL | Math and trigonometry | Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers. |

MUNIT | Math and trigonometry | Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension. |

N | Information | Returns a value converted to a number. |

NA | Information | Returns the error value #N/A. |

NEGBINOM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the negative binomial distribution. |

NEGBINOMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the negative binomial distribution. |

NETWORKDAYS | Date and time | Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates. |

NETWORKDAYS.INTL | Date and time | Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. |

NOMINAL | Financial | Returns the annual nominal interest rate. |

NORM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the normal cumulative distribution. |

NORM.INV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. |

NORM.S.DIST | Statistical | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. |

NORM.S.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. |

NORMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the normal cumulative distribution. |

NORMINV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. |

NORMSDIST | Compatibility | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. |

NORMSINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. |

NOT | Logical | Reverses the logic of its argument. |

NOW | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the current date and time. |

NPER | Financial | Returns the number of periods for an investment. |

NPV | Financial | Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. |

NUMBERVALUE | Text | Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner. |

OCT2BIN | Engineering | Converts an octal number to binary. |

OCT2DEC | Engineering | Converts an octal number to decimal. |

OCT2HEX | Engineering | Converts an octal number to hexadecimal. |

ODD | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer. |

ODDFPRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period. |

ODDFYIELD | Financial | Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period. |

ODDLPRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period. |

ODDLYIELD | Financial | Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period. |

OFFSET | Lookup and reference | Returns a reference offset from a given reference. |

OR | Logical | Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE. |

PDURATION | Financial | Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value. |

PEARSON | Statistical | Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. |

PERCENTILE | Compatibility | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. |

PERCENTILE.EXC | Statistical | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive. |

PERCENTILE.INC | Statistical | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range. |

PERCENTRANK | Compatibility | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. |

PERCENTRANK.EXC | Statistical | Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set. |

PERCENTRANK.INC | Statistical | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. |

PERMUT | Statistical | Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects. |

PERMUTATIONA | Statistical | Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects. |

PHI | Statistical | Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution. |

PI | Math and trigonometry | Returns the value of pi. |

PMT | Financial | Returns the periodic payment for an annuity. |

POISSON | Compatibility | Returns the Poisson distribution. |

POISSON.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Poisson distribution. |

POWER | Math and trigonometry | Returns the result of a number raised to a power. |

PPMT | Financial | Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period. |

PRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. |

PRICEDISC | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security. |

PRICEMAT | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. |

PROB | Statistical | Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. |

PRODUCT | Math and trigonometry | Multiplies its arguments. |

PROPER | Text | Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value. |

PV | Financial | Returns the present value of an investment. |

QUARTILE | Compatibility | Returns the quartile of a data set. |

QUARTILE.EXC | Statistical | Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive. |

QUARTILE.INC | Statistical | Returns the quartile of a data set. |

QUOTIENT | Math and trigonometry | Returns the integer portion of a division. |

RADIANS | Math and trigonometry | Converts degrees to radians. |

RAND | Math and trigonometry | Returns a random number between 0 and 1. |

RANDBETWEEN | Math and trigonometry | Returns a random number between the numbers you specify. |

RANK | Compatibility | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. |

RANK.AVG | Statistical | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. |

RANK.EQ | Statistical | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. |

RATE | Financial | Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. |

RECEIVED | Financial | Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security. |

REPLACE | Text | Replaces characters within text. |

REPLACEBs | Text | Replaces characters within text |

REPT | Text | Repeats text a given number of times. |

RIGHT | Text | Returns the rightmost characters from a text value. |

RIGHTBs | Text | Returns the rightmost characters from a text value. |

ROMAN | Math and trigonometry | Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text. |

ROUND | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. |

ROUNDDOWN | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number down, toward zero. |

ROUNDUP | Math and trigonometry | Rounds a number up, away from zero. |

ROW | Lookup and reference | Returns the row number of a reference. |

ROWS | Lookup and reference | Returns the number of rows in a reference. |

RRI | Financial | Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment. |

RSQ | Statistical | Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. |

SEARCH | Text | Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive). |

SEARCHBs | Text | Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive). |

SEC | Math and trigonometry | Returns the secant of an angle. |

SECH | Math and trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle. |

SECOND | Date and Time | Converts a serial number to a second. |

SERIESSUM | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula. |

SHEET | Information | Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet. |

SHEETS | Information | Returns the number of sheets in a reference. |

SIGN | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sign of a number. |

SIN | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sine of the given angle. |

SINH | Math and trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. |

SKEW | Statistical | Returns the skewness of a distribution. |

SKEW.P | Statistical | Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean. |

SLN | Financial | Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period. |

SLOPE | Statistical | Returns the slope of the linear regression line. |

SMALL | Statistical | Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set. |

SQRT | Math and trigonometry | Returns a positive square root. |

SQRTPI | Math and trigonometry | Returns the square root of (number * pi). |

STANDARDIZE | Statistical | Returns a normalized value. |

STDEV | Compatibility | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. |

STDEV.P | Statistical | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. |

STDEV.S | Statistical | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. |

STDEVA | Statistical | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

STDEVP | Compatibility | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. |

STDEVPA | Statistical | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

STEYX | Statistical | Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression. |

SUBSTITUTE | Text | Substitutes new text for old text in a text string. |

SUBTOTAL | Math and trigonometry | Returns a subtotal in a list or database. |

SUM | Math and trigonometry | Adds its arguments. |

SUMIF | Math and trigonometry | Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. |

SUMIFS | Math and trigonometry | Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria. |

SUMPRODUCT | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components. |

SUMSQ | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments. |

SUMX2MY2 | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SUMX2PY2 | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SUMXMY2 | Math and trigonometry | Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. |

SWITCH | Logical | Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. |

SYD | Financial | Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. |

T | Text | Converts its arguments to text. |

T.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution. |

T.DIST.2T | Statistical | Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution. |

T.DIST.RT | Statistical | Returns the Student's t-distribution. |

T.INV | Statistical | Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom. |

T.INV.2T | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution. |

T.TEST | Statistical | Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test. |

TAN | Math and trigonometry | Returns the tangent of a number. |

TANH | Math and trigonometry | Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. |

TBILLEQ | Financial | Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill. |

TBILLPRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill. |

TBILLYIELD | Financial | Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. |

TDIST | Compatibility | Returns the Student's t-distribution. |

TEXT | Text | Formats a number and converts it to text. |

TEXTJOIN | Text | Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. |

TIME | Date and time | Returns the serial number of a particular time. |

TIMEVALUE | Date and time | Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number. |

TINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution. |

TODAY | Date and time | Returns the serial number of today's date. |

TRANSPOSE | Lookup and reference | Returns the transpose of an array. |

TREND | Statistical | Returns values along a linear trend. |

TRIM | Text | Removes spaces from text. |

TRIMMEAN | Statistical | Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. |

TRUE | Logical | Returns the logical value TRUE. |

TRUNC | Math and trigonometry | Truncates a number to an integer. |

TTEST | Compatibility | Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test. |

TYPE | Information | Returns a number indicating the data type of a value. |

UNICHAR | Text | Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value. |

UNICODE | Text | Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text. |

UPPER | Text | Converts text to uppercase. |

VALUE | Text | Converts a text argument to a number. |

VAR | Compatibility | Estimates variance based on a sample. |

VAR.P | Statistical | Calculates variance based on the entire population. |

VAR.S | Statistical | Estimates variance based on a sample. |

VARA | Statistical | Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

VARP | Compatibility | Calculates variance based on the entire population. |

VARPA | Statistical | Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

VDB | Financial | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method. |

VLOOKUP | Lookup and reference | Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell. |

WEEKDAY | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a day of the week. |

WEEKNUM | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year. |

WEIBULL | Compatibility | Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values. |

WEIBULL.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Weibull distribution. |

WORKDAY | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays. |

WORKDAY.INTL | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days. |

XIRR | Financial | Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. |

XNPV | Financial | Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. |

XOR | Logical | Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments. |

YEAR | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a year. |

YEARFRAC | Date and time | Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date. |

YIELD | Financial | Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest. |

YIELDDISC | Financial | Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill. |

YIELDMAT | Financial | Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity. |

Z.TEST | Statistical | Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. |

ZTEST | Compatibility | Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test. |