﻿ COVARIANCE.P | Spread.NET 15 Formula Reference
Formula Functions / Functions A to C / COVARIANCE.P
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COVARIANCE.P
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#### Summary

This function returns the population covariance, which is the average of the products of deviations for each data point pair in two sets of numbers.

#### Syntax

COVARIANCE.P(array1,array2)

#### Arguments

The two arrays of data in the arguments of this function should meet these criteria:

• The data should contain numbers, names, arrays, or references that are numeric. If some cells do not contain numeric data, they are ignored.
• The data sets should be the same size, with the same number of data points.
• The data sets should not be empty, nor should the standard deviation of their values equal zero.

#### Remarks

Use this covariance function to determine the relationship between two sets of data. For example, you can determine whether greater income accompanies greater levels of education in a population.

The covariance is calculated as follows, where n and y are the sample means, AVERAGE(array1) and AVERAGE(array2), and n is the sample size. #### Data Types

Accepts arrays of numeric data for both arguments. Returns numeric data.

#### Examples

COVARIANCE.P(J2:J5,L2:L5)

COVARIANCE.P(R2C12:R15C12,R2C14:R15C14)

COVARIANCE.P({7,5,6},{7,4,4}) gives the result 1

COVARIANCE.P({5,10,15,20,25},{4,8,16,32,64}) gives the result 144

#### Version Available

This function is available in Spread for Windows Forms 11.0 or later.